Art + Culture

シュルレアリスム Surrealism

Surrealism is a cultural movement that developed in Europe in the aftermath of World War I in which artists depicted unnerving, illogical scenes and developed techniques to allow the unconscious mind to express itself. Its aim was, according to leader André Breton, to “resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality”, or surreality. It produced works of painting, writing, theatre, filmmaking, photography, and other media. Works of Surrealism feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur. However, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost (for instance, of the “pure psychic automatism” Breton speaks of in the first Surrealist Manifesto), with the works themselves being secondary, i.e., artifacts of surrealist experimentation. Leader Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. At the time, the movement was associated with political causes such as communism and anarchism. It was influenced by the Dada movement of the 1910s. シュルレアリスム(仏: surréalisme)は、戦間期にフランスで起こった作家アンドレ・ブルトンを中心とする文学・芸術運動である。すでに1919年から最初のシュルレアリスムの試みである自動記述が行われていたが、1924年にブルトンが『シュルレアリスム宣言』を発表し、運動が本格的に始まった。ブルトンはこの宣言でシュルレアリスムを「口頭、記述、その他のあらゆる方法によって、思考の真の動きを表現しようとする純粋な心的オートマティスム。理性による監視をすべて排除し、美的・道徳的なすべての先入見から離れた、思考の書き取り」と定義した。 — ジェーン・バーキン Jane Birkin – セルジュ・ゲンスブール Serge Gainsbourg 「You look like holidays」